Written Corrective Feedback: Enhancing Writing Ability Through Direct Correction

Dayat Dayat


To enhance writing ability, written corrective feedback (WCF) is one of pedagogy activity that is usually carried out in helping students in learning writing.  Thirty-six EFL students of first semester of English Study Program at IKIP-PGRI Pontianak participated in the study which explored the implementation of direct correction (DC) in enhancing basic writing. Besides the lecturer, the intervention of collaborator in giving direct correction was also applied during classroom instruction. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data was collected and analyzed by using critical and comparative analysis. Although first cycle indicated unsatisfied result, only 47% those who achieved the criterion, another cycle showed the expected writing improvement. It was 71% students attaining the criterion. This recent findings support previous research on the positive effects of WCF on DC with a beneficial advantage of error correction in writing instruction.


WCF; direct correction; classroom instruction.

Full Text:



Abedi, Razie; Latifi, Mehdi & Moinzadeh, Ahmad. The Effect of Error Correction vs. Error Detection on Iranian Pre-Intermediate EFL Learners’ Writing Achievement. Journal of ELT, Vol. 3, No. 4, 168-171, 2010.

Adler-Kassner, Linda & O’Neill, Peggy. Reframing Writing Assessment to Improve Teaching and Learning. Utah: Utah State University Press, 2010.

Bartels, Nat. Applied Linguistics and Language Teacher Education. New York: Springer Science+Business Media Inc., 2005.

Bratcher, Suzanne & Ryan, Linda. Evaluating Children’s Writing, A Hanbook of Grading Choices for Classroom Teachers: Second Edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2004.

Broad, Bob. What We Really Value, Beyond Rubrics in Teaching and Assessing Writing. Utah: Utah State University Press, 2003.

Brookhart, Susan M. How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students. Virginia. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD), 2008.

Brown, Kristine and Hood, Susan. Writing Matter: Writing Skills and Strategies for Students of English. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Burke, Deirdre and Pieterick, Jackie. Giving Students Effective Written Feedback. New York: The McGraw Hill Companies, 2010.

Burns, Anne. Doing Action Research in English Language Teaching. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Chandler, Jean. The Efficacy of Various Kinds of Error Feedback for Improvement in The Accuracy and Fluency of L2 Student Writing. Cambridge J. of SLA Writing, 12: 267-296, 2003.

Crawford, Alan; Mathews, Samuel & Makinster, James. Teaching and Learning Strategies for the Thinking Classroom. New York: The International Debate Education Association, 2005.

Creswell, John W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approach: Third Edition. Singapore: SAGE Publication Ltd., 2009.

Creswell, John W., and Vicki L. Plano Clark. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research 2nd Edition. Amerika: SAGE, 2011.

Donovan, M. Suzanne & Pellegrino, James W. Learning, and Instruction: a SERP Research Agenda : Panel on Learning and Instruction. United States: National Academy of Science, 2004.

East, Martin. Dictionary Use in Foreign Language Writing Exams: Impact and Implication. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V., 2008.

Ellis, Rod. A Tyopology of Written Correction Feedback Types. Oxford University Press: ELT J. Volume 63 (2), 2009.

Farid, Saeid & Abdul Samad, Adlina. Effects of Different Kind of Direct Feedback on Students’ Writing. Kuala Lumpur. Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia: The 8th International Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) Seminar-Aligning Theoretical Knowledge with Professional Practice. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 66, 232 – 239, 2012.

Farrokhi, Farahman and Sattarpour, Simin. The Effect of Focused and Unfocused Written Corrective Feedback on Grammatical Accuracy of Iranian EFL Learners. J. of Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 1, No. 12, 1797-1803, 2011.

Ferris, Dana. The “Grammar Correction” Debate in L2 Writing: Where Are We, and Where Do We Go From Here? (And What Do We Do in the Meantime…?. California State University, Sacramento, CA., USA: J. of Second Language Writing, Volume 13:49-62, 2004.

Ferris, Dana R. & Hedgcock, John S. Teaching ESL Composition; Purpose, Process, and Practice: Second Edition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2005.

Greenbaum, Sidney and Nelson, Gerald. An Introduction to English Grammar (2nd ed.). Edinburgh. Pearson Education Limited, 2002.

Harris, Karen R., & Graham, Steve. Teacher’s Guide to Effective Sentence Writing. New York: The Guilford Press, 2012.

Hegarty, Carol. Writing; English in Context. United States of America: Saddleback Education Publishing, 2000.

Hutchinsson, Emily. Narrative Writing. USA: Saddleback Educational Publishing, 2005.

Hyland, Ken and Hyland, Fiona. Feedback in Second Language Writing; Context and Issue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Johnson, Andrew P. Teaching Reading and Writing; A Guidebook for Tutoring and Remediating Students. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2008.

Kane, Thomas S. The Oxford Essential Guide to Writing. New York: Barkley Books, 2000.

Kao, Chian-Wen. Effects of Focused Feedback on the Acquisition of Two English Articles. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language. Vol. 17, No. 1. Available: http://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/issues/volume17/ej65/ej65a3/, 2013.

Kendall, Juli & Khuon, Outey. Writing Sense: Integrated Reading and Writing Lessons for English Language Learners. USA: Stenhouse Publishers, 2006.

Lieberman, Ann & Wood, Diane R. Inside National Writing Project; Connecting Network Learning and Classroom Teaching. New York: Teacher College Press, 2003.

Liu, Yingliang, The Effects of Error Feedback in Second Language Writing. Arizona Working Papers in SLA & Teaching, Vol.15, 65-79, 2008.

Maleki, Ataollah & Eslami, Elham. The Effects of Written Corrective Feedback Techniques on EFL Students‟ Control over Grammatical Construction of Their Written English. Finland. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 3, No. 7, pp. 1250-1257, 2013.

Manchón, Rosa M. Writing in Foreign Language Contexts, Learning, Teaching and Research. Canada. Multilingual Matters, 2009.

McDonald, Christina Russell & McDonald, Robert L. Teaching Writing; Landmarks and Horizons. Virginia: The Board of Trustees, 2002.

Melzer, Dan. Student Writing Handbook: 1st Edition. Dan Melzer and the Sacramento State University Writing and Reading Subcommittee, 2009.

Mishra, Krushna Chandra. Correction of Errors in English; a Training Course for The teachers of English as a Second Language. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, 2005.

Nadler, Burton Jay; Nadler, Jordan; Nadler Justinl. Words You Should Know in High School, 1,000 Essential Words to Build Vocabulary, Improve Standardized Test Scores, and Write Successful Papers. Massachusetts: Adams Media, 2005.

Nation, I.S.P. Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Olson, Judith F. Writing Skills Success in 20 Minutes a Day. New York: Learning Express, 2009.

Pawlak, Miroslaw. Error Correction in the Foreign Language Classroom, Reconsidering the Issues. Kalisz: Faculty of Pedagogy ad Fine Arts, Adam Mickiewicz University, 2012.

Rochberg, Francesca. The Heavenly Writing; Divination, Horoscopy, and Astronomy in Mesopotamian Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Sheen, Younghee; Wright, David; and Moldawa, Anna. Differential Effects of Focused and Unfocused Written Correction on the Accurate Use of Grammatical Forms by Adult ESL Learners. J. of Science Direct, 37, 556-569, 2009.

Coffin, Caroline; Curry, Mary Jane; Goodman, Sharon; Hewings, Ann; Lilis, Theresa M. and Swann, Joan. Teaching Academic Writing: A Toolkit for Higher Education. London: Routledge, 2003.

Truscott, John. The Case for “The Case against Grammar Correction in L2 Writing Class”: A Response to Ferris. J. of Second Language Writing, volume 8(2): 111-122, 1999.

Vargas, Julie S. Behavior Analysis for Effective Teaching. New York: Routledge, 2013.

Weigle, Sara Cushing. Assessing Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Yuliawati, Fitri, dkk. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas Untuk Tenaga Pendidik Profesional. Yogyakarta: PT Pustaka Insan Madani, 2012.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 ADRI International Journal Of Research Language Educational and Linguistic

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.